### Python r , r+ , w, w+ , a and a+

The argument mode points to a string beginning with one of the following

r''   Open text file for reading.  The stream is positioned at the
beginning of the file.

r+''  Open for reading and writing.  The stream is positioned at the
beginning of the file.

w''   Truncate file to zero length or create text file for writing.
The stream is positioned at the beginning of the file.

w+''  Open for reading and writing.  The file is created if it does not
exist, otherwise it is truncated.  The stream is positioned at
the beginning of the file.

a''   Open for writing.  The file is created if it does not exist.  The
stream is positioned at the end of the file.  Subsequent writes
to the file will always end up at the then current end of file,
irrespective of any intervening fseek(3) or similar.

a+''  Open for reading and writing.  The file is created if it does not
exist.  The stream is positioned at the end of the file.  Subse-
quent writes to the file will always end up at the then current
end of file, irrespective of any intervening fseek(3) or similar.